Chapter 2 introduces the major forms of energy and entropy relevant to describe Earth system processes.
The following shows the color versions of the figures of Chapter 2 (partly modified) as well as their caption. A click on the figure provides a link to the respective PDF version of the figure.
Figure 2.1 (modified) A system is defined by its boundary to the environment, by its state, and by its exchange fluxes Jx,i with the environment. The state of the system is expressed by state variables (symbolized by x), which are subject to conservation laws.
Figure 2.2 Illustration of forms of energy distribution at the microscopic scale and how it relates to macroscopic properties and different forms of entropy.
Figure 2.3 A thought experiment of filling two boxes with a given amount of energy with a certain number of quanta, N. Shown are the possible, “microscopic” outcomes of finding a certain number of quanta in the left and right boxes for N = 1, 2, and 3. The bottom row shows the general expression for the probability to find all quanta in the left box, an equal number in both boxes (middle), and to find all quanta in the right box.
Figure 2.4 (modified) Probability to find an uneven partitioning of the distributed energy among the two boxes, as measured by ∆f. A value of ∆f = −1 (∆f = 1) rep- resents the case in which all energy is located in box B (box A) respectively. Energy is distributed equally in the case of ∆ f = 0. Three cases are shown in which N = 5, N = 20, and N = 100 quanta of energy are being distributed.
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